Chemistry Times
Recent News |  Archives |  Tags |  About |  Newsletter |  Submit News |  Links |  Subscribe to ChemistryTimes.com RSS Feed Subscribe


More Articles
Mixed genes mix up the migrations of hybrid birdsMixed genes mix up the migrations of hybrid birds

Future electronics may depend on lasers, not quartzFuture electronics may depend on lasers, not quartz

Understanding graphene's electrical properties on an atomic levelUnderstanding graphene's electrical properties on an atomic level

Geologist says Curiosity's images show Earth-like soils on MarsGeologist says Curiosity's images show Earth-like soils on Mars

New research: When it hurts to think we were made for each otherNew research: When it hurts to think we were made for each other

Bacteria swim with whole body, not just propellersBacteria swim with whole body, not just propellers

Boosting the force of empty spaceBoosting the force of empty space

Flower development in 3D: Timing is the keyFlower development in 3D: Timing is the key

Wisconsin scientists find genetic recipe to turn stem cells to bloodWisconsin scientists find genetic recipe to turn stem cells to blood

NRL reveals new meteorological insight into mid-level cloudsNRL reveals new meteorological insight into mid-level clouds

Law of physics governs airplane evolutionLaw of physics governs airplane evolution

PIWI proteins and piRNAs regulate genes in the germline and beyondPIWI proteins and piRNAs regulate genes in the germline and beyond

Potent spider toxin 'electrocutes' German, not American, cockroachesPotent spider toxin 'electrocutes' German, not American, cockroaches

The economic territory of Upper Palaeolithic groups is specified by flintThe economic territory of Upper Palaeolithic groups is specified by flint

Running for life: How speed restricts evolutionary change of the vertebral columnRunning for life: How speed restricts evolutionary change of the vertebral column

Brain waves show learning to read does not end in 4th grade, contrary to popular theory

The bend in the Appalachian mountain chain is finally explainedThe bend in the Appalachian mountain chain is finally explained

Getting a grip on robotic graspGetting a grip on robotic grasp

Cooperation among humans, a question of ageCooperation among humans, a question of age

Protein's 'hands' enable bacteria to establish infection, research findsProtein's 'hands' enable bacteria to establish infection, research finds

Less exercise, not more calories, responsible for expanding waistlinesLess exercise, not more calories, responsible for expanding waistlines

High earners in a stock market game have brain patterns that can predict market bubblesHigh earners in a stock market game have brain patterns that can predict market bubbles

Platonic solids generate their 4-dimensional analoguesPlatonic solids generate their 4-dimensional analogues

A healthy lifestyle adds years to lifeA healthy lifestyle adds years to life

Study of animal urination could lead to better-engineered productsStudy of animal urination could lead to better-engineered products

Do probiotics help kids with stomach bugs?Do probiotics help kids with stomach bugs?

Strict diet suspends development, doubles lifespan of wormsStrict diet suspends development, doubles lifespan of worms

Identified for the first time what kind of explosive has been used after the detonationIdentified for the first time what kind of explosive has been used after the detonation

Copied from nature: Detecting software errors via genetic algorithmsCopied from nature: Detecting software errors via genetic algorithms

How the first step affects the (watery) result (6/26/2010)

Tags:
hydrogen
These are scientists Dr. Stefanie Tschierlei and Dr. Michael Schmitt working in a spectroscopy laboratory of Jena University. -  Photo: FSU
These are scientists Dr. Stefanie Tschierlei and Dr. Michael Schmitt working in a spectroscopy laboratory of Jena University. - Photo: FSU

Energy from hydrogen - scientists from all over the world work on this solution to overcome the energy crisis. Amongst other things they try to use the sunlight as driving force for the splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen. In trying to copy the photosynthesis in the laboratory a team of scientists of the Universities of Jena and Erlangen-Nürnberg and of the Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT) in Jena (Germany) made a huge step forward. The physiccists and chemists were able to prove in their tests, that the first step already affects the efficiency of hydrogen generation. "This is as if you would decide about where you´re going to by turning the ignition key in the car," says PD Dr Michael Schmitt from the Institute of Physical Chemistry (IPC) of the University of Jena. To put it scientifically: "The Franck-Cordon-point has to be created in such a way that the initial process of transferring electrons already points into the direction of the catalytic active center." The results were published in the science journal ?Angewandte Chemie Int. Ed.".

In their tests for a more efficient energy conversion the scientists focus on chemical photo catalysts. With this light is being used to let electrons "jump" well-directed from one subunit of the molecule to the other or to transport them over a ligand, which is a "bridge".

Like the photosynthesis this process, which the chemists run in the laboratory, works in two main steps: A special metal complex with Ruthenium as its main component serves as an antenna which harvests the light. The Ruthenium then transfers an electron onto the reaction center. The core of the reaction center is a Palladium atom. At this metal center the hydrogen is finally generated. But other than in nature not all electrons reach the palladium center from the Ruthenium in the laboratory construction. Some choose "detours", some enter "roundabouts" or "blind alleys" and thus are being lost for the reaction. "Supported by resonance Raman spectroscopy we were able to watch and see where the electron ends after directly after the photoexitation," describes Prof Dr Juergen Popp, director of IPC and IPHT. ?Thereby we were able to develop a new synthesis paradigm", Michael Schmitt adds. The team of scientists could prove that the efficiency of hydrogen generation depends on the light wavelength. It is more efficient the redder the light used for photo excitation is - light of a wavelength of 550 nm is ideal. "The redder the light the more electrons are transferred to the ligand, that connects the Ruthenium with the Palladium", Schmitt says. Moreover the initial absorption step decides where the electron goes and thus how effective the generation of energy is.

"This knowledge enables us to put up well-directed barriers so that the electrons don´t take a ,wrong turn' but exclusively end up at the Palladium", says Prof Popp explaining the application potential of this fundamental research. In the laboratory the hydrogen generation is four times above former data but still far below the necessary rate. Now it is up to the chemists, like the participating Prof. Dr Sven Rau, to optimize the molecular catalysts, that "no electrons will be taken on by terminal ligands," as Schmitt explains.

The scientists know that it is still a long way to go to copy the photosynthesis of nature correctly and efficiently. "But due to our spectroscopic analysis we took a huge step on this way", Prof Popp is sure though.

Note: This story has been adapted from a news release issued by the Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena

Post Comments:

Search
New Articles
Technique simplifies the creation of high-tech crystalsTechnique simplifies the creation of high-tech crystals

Fundamental chemistry findings could help extend Moore's LawFundamental chemistry findings could help extend Moore's Law

Self-cooling solar cells boost power, last longerSelf-cooling solar cells boost power, last longer

An anti-glare, anti-reflective display for mobile devices?

Uncertainty gives scientists new confidence in search for novel materials

Neutron crystallography solves long-standing biological mysteryNeutron crystallography solves long-standing biological mystery

A first direct glimpse of photosynthesis in action

Ferromagnetism at 230 K found in a new diluted magnetic semiconductor by Chinese physicists

Postcards from the photosynthetic edgePostcards from the photosynthetic edge

Chemists develop novel catalyst with 2 functions

Researchers figure out how to make more efficient fuel cellsResearchers figure out how to make more efficient fuel cells

Researchers: Consider the 'anticrystal'Researchers: Consider the 'anticrystal'

Smart paint signals when equipment is too hot to handle

Using sand to improve battery performanceUsing sand to improve battery performance

Silicon sponge improves lithium-ion battery performance



Archives
July 2014
June 2014
May 2014
April 2014
March 2014
February 2014
January 2014
December 2013
November 2013
October 2013
September 2013
August 2013
July 2013
June 2013
May 2013
April 2013
March 2013
February 2013
January 2013
December 2012
November 2012
October 2012
September 2012
August 2012
July 2012
June 2012
May 2012
April 2012
March 2012
February 2012
January 2012
December 2011
November 2011
October 2011
September 2011
August 2011
July 2011
June 2011
May 2011
April 2011
March 2011
February 2011
January 2011
December 2010
November 2010
October 2010
September 2010
August 2010
July 2010
June 2010
May 2010
April 2010
March 2010
February 2010
January 2010
December 2009
November 2009
October 2009
September 2009
August 2009
July 2009
June 2009
May 2009
April 2009
March 2009
February 2009
January 2009
December 2008
November 2008
October 2008
September 2008
August 2008
July 2008
June 2008
May 2008
April 2008
March 2008
February 2008
January 2008
December 2007
November 2007
October 2007
September 2007
August 2007


Science Friends
Agricultural Science
Astronomy News
Sports Tech
Biology News
Biomimicry Science
Cognitive Research
Tissue Engineering
Cancer Research
Cybernetics Research
Electonics Research
Forensics Report
Fossil News
Genetic Archaeology
Genetics News
Geology News
Microbiology Research
Nanotech News
Parenting News
Physics News


  Archives |  Submit News |  Advertise With Us |  Contact Us |  Links
Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our Terms of Service and Privacy Policy. All contents © 2000 - 2015 Web Doodle, LLC. All rights reserved.